top of page


 Beeby, Andrew, Richard Gameson, and Catherine Nicholson, ‘Illuminators’ Pigments in Lancastrian England’, Manuscripta, 60.2 (2016), 143–64

———, ‘New Light on Old Illuminations’, Archives and Records, 39.2 (2018), 244–56

Brown, Katherine L., and Robin J. H. Clark, ‘Analysis of Key Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts (8–11th Centuries) in the British Library: Pigment Identification by Raman Microscopy’, Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, 35.3 (2004), 181–89

———, ‘The Lindisfarne Gospels and Two Other 8th Century Anglo-Saxon/Insular Manuscripts: Pigment Identification by Raman Microscopy’, Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, 35.1 (2004), 4–12

———, ‘Three English Manuscripts Post-1066 AD: Pigment Identification and Palette Comparisons by Raman Microscopy’, Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, 35.3 (2004), 217–23

Cennini, Cennino, The Craftsman’s Handbook: The Italian ‘Il Libro Dell’ Arte’, ed. by Daniel V. Thompson (New York: Dover Publications, 1960) 

Chen, Jessie Wei-Hsuan, ‘Planting Pigments | Universiteit Utrecht’, Planting Pigments [accessed 7 September 2021]

Clark, Robin J. H., and Jaap van der Weerd, ‘Identification of Pigments and Gemstones on the Tours Gospel: The Early 9th Century Carolingian Palette’, Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, 35.4 (2004), 279–83

Clarke, Mark, ‘Anglo-Saxon Manuscript Pigments’, Studies in Conservation, 49.4 (2004), 231–44

———, ‘The Analysis of Medieval European Manuscripts’, Studies in Conservation, 46.sup1 (2001), 3–17

———, The Art of All Colours: Mediaeval Recipe Books for Painters and Illuminators (London: Archetype, 2001)

Coccato, Alessia, Luc Moens, and Peter Vandenabeele, ‘On the Stability of Mediaeval Inorganic Pigments: A Literature Review of the Effect of Climate, Material Selection, Biological Activity, Analysis and Conservation Treatments’, Heritage Science, 5.1 (2017), 12

Colour: The Art & Science of Illuminated Manuscripts, ed. by Stella Panayotova (London: Harvey Miller Publishers, 2016) 

Eastaugh, Nicholas, Valentine Walsh, Tracey Chaplin, and Ruth Siddall, Pigment Compendium: A Dictionary and Optical Microscopy of Historical Pigments (Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2008)

Gameson, Richard, Andrew Beeby, A. R. Duckworth, and Catherine Nicholson, ‘Pigments of the Earliest Northumbrian Manuscripts’, Scriptorium, 69, (2015) 33–59

Hunt, Tony, ‘Early Anglo-Norman Receipts for Colours’, Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, 58 (1995), 203–9, ‘Isabella Whitworth’, Isabella Whitworth <> [accessed 9 September 2021]

Kendrick, Thomas Downing, Evangeliorum quattuor Codex Lindisfarnensis: Musei Britannici codex Cottonianus Nero D. IV (Olten [Switzerland]: Urs Graf, 1956)

Medlej, Joumana, Inks & Paints of the Middle East: A Handbook of Abbasid Art Technology (London, UK: Majnouna, 2021)

Merrifield, Mary P., Medieval and Renaissance Treatises on the Arts of Painting: Original Texts with English Translations (Mineola, N.Y.: Dover Publications, 1999)

Mounier, Aurélie, and Floréal Daniel, ‘Pigments & Dyes in a Collection of Medieval Illuminations (14th–16th Century)’, Color Research & Application, 42.6 (2017), 807–22

Ricciardi, Paola, Anuradha Pallipurath, and Kristine Rose, ‘“It’s Not Easy Being Green”: A Spectroscopic Study of Green Pigments Used in Illuminated Manuscripts’, Analytical Methods, 5.16 (2013), 3819–24

Rogers, Penelope Walton, and York Archaeological Trust, The Archaeology of York. Vol. 17: The Small Finds (York: Published for the York Archaeological Trust by the Council for British Archaeology, 1997)

Smith, Cyril Stanley, and John G. Hawthorne, ‘Mappae Clavicula: A Little Key to the World of Medieval Techniques’, Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 64.4 (1974), 1–128

Theophilus, On Divers Arts: The Foremost Medieval Treatise on Painting, Glassmaking and Metalwork, ed. by Cyril Stanley Smith and John G. Hawthorne (London: Constable, 1979)

Thompson, Daniel V., and Bernard Berenson, The Materials and Techniques of Medieval Painting (New York: Dover Publications, 1956)

University, Durham,  ‘Team Pigment’ [accessed 7 September 2021]

‘Woad Extraction by Teresinha Roberts’ [accessed 9 September 2021]

bottom of page